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  Singapore

  Singapore is a small, flat, marshy island that hasbeen developed to become the most important portand business center in Southeast Asia and one ofthe ten wealthiest countries in the world in terms ofgross national product per capita2 .

  Singapore has a population of 3. 5 million peopleand a high density of more than 500 people persquare kilometer. The superior infrastructure — especially the excellent port and internationalairport — has made Singapore the import and transshipment center for the region. It is one ofthe world’s largest oil refining centers3, where crude oil is unloaded and refined beforeshipment to the rest of Asia . These functions are complemented by a large variety ofmaritime service activities, including banking, insurance, communications, and consulting.

  Singapore has diversified its service sector to include a wider range of financial,communications, and management activities and has attracted the regional headquarters ofmany multinational corporations. And tourism has also become a significant industry. Thisdiversification, as well as high consumption levels in the domestic market, allowed Singaporeto cope with the 1983 oil crisis and 1997 Asian financial crisis somewhat more easily than didother countries in the region.

  Singapore has a population of diverse ethnicity and religion, but it is dominated ( 77 percent)by overseas Chinese, descendants of immigrants who moved to Singapore in the colonial periodand followed the religions of Buddhism and Taoism. Other groups include Malays ( about 15percent) and Indians ( about 7 percent, mainly Hindu) . Fertility rates are low in Singapore, andthe government has tried to promote more births among the highly educated in order toreduce labor shortages and ensure a workforce to support the older population. ColonialSingapore was residentially segregated, with the British living next to the government buildingson the east shore of the Singapore River4, Chinatown on the west riverbank, and Indian andMalay neighborhoods farther toward the east. There are remnants of this structure incontemporary Singapore, but the city is now characterized by dozens of tall office buildings,housing complexes, new towns and new industrial parks.

  The government has made serious attempts to foster harmony between ethnic groups and tocreate a sense of national identity by designating four official languages ( Mandarin 064Chinese, English, Malay, and Indian Tamil) . They promote an Asian identity through schoolsand national military service that emphasize hard work, community consensus, and respectfor authority. They also enforce Singapore’s image of a clean and crime-free 5 environmentthrough very strict rules against litter and graffiti, media censorship, and licensing of satellitedishes and street entertainers.

  阅读自测

  Ⅰ. Complete the sentence s with the proper forms of the words given in parentheses :

  1. The nation’s _______( consume) of coal decreased continuously last year.

  2. Today’s bicycles are _______( descend ) of the earlier velocipede ( 早期的脚踏两 轮车) .

  3. The Chinese are an _______ ( industry) nation.

  4. _______( immigrate) can’t work in the United States without a permit.

  Ⅱ. Complete each sentence with a proper word , and make changes if necessary: (characterize , fund, enforce, ensure , dominate)

  1. Successful leaders events rather than react to them.

  2. We can that the work shall be done in the right way.

  3. This disease is by rash and high fever.

  4. The responsibility that the police shoulders is to the law.

  5. The space program is completely by the central government

  参考答案

  Ⅰ. 1. consumption 2 . descendants 3. industrious 4 . Immigrants

  Ⅱ. 1. dominate 2 . ensure 3. characterized 4.enforce 5. funded

  参考译文

  非凡岛国———新加坡

  新加坡面积不大, 地势平坦, 是个湿润的岛国, 现已发展成东南亚最重要的港口和商业 中心。按照人均国民生产总值计算的话, 新加坡现已成为世界最富的十国之一。

  新加坡有350 万人口, 人口高度密集, 每平方公里就有五百多个人。新加坡的基础设 施完备, 其港口和国际机场尤为精良, 优越的条件已使新加坡成为东南亚地区进口和中转 中心。新加坡也是世界最大的炼油中心之一, 原油在这里卸载, 进行精炼, 然后运送到亚洲 其他地方。这些功能与种类繁多的银行、保险、通信和咨询等海事服务机构相辅相承。

  新加坡使本国的服务业多样化, 它广泛开展各种金融、通讯和管理活动, 于是吸引了许 多跨国公司在当地建立地区性总部。同样, 旅游业也成为一个重要的产业。服务业的多样 化以及国内市场的高消费水平, 使新加坡能比该地区其他国家更加从容地应付1983 年的 石油危机和1997 年的亚洲金融危机。

  新加坡人有着不同的种族和不同的宗教信仰, 但海外华人处于支配地位( 占总人口的 77% ) , 他们是殖民时期移民到新加坡的华人的后代, 信仰佛教和道教。其他种族包括马来 人( 约占15% ) 和印度人( 约占7% , 主要是印度教徒) 。新加坡的人口出生率不高, 因此政 府鼓励受过高等教育的人多生育, 从而缓解劳动力不足, 确保人口结构的平衡。殖民地时 期的新加坡在住宅区实行种族隔离, 当时英国人住的地方贴近伫立在新加坡河东岸的政府 大楼, 唐人街在河的西岸, 而印度人和马来人住的地方离东岸更远。如今的新加坡还留有 这种结构的残迹, 但现在整个城市已到处都是高耸的写字楼、配套住宅区、新兴城镇和新兴 工业园。

  新加坡政府努力促进不同种族间的和谐相处, 通过将四种语言定为官方语言( 分别为 汉语、英语、马来语和印度泰米尔语) , 来促使每个新加坡人产生民族身份感。新加坡政府 还通过教育和义务兵役制来强调努力工作、与社会保持一致和尊重权威的理念, 从而促进 了新加坡国民亚洲人的身份感。新加坡政府还严格实施各种法规, 严禁乱扔垃圾和任意涂 鸦, 对媒体进行严格审查, 并对圆盘式卫星电视天线和街头艺人颁发许可证来进行限制, 以 此树立新加坡环境清洁、治安良好的国家形象。

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